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Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Oral History Project[1970 - Present]
About the Project
Interviews
Project Themes
KP Founding Generation
Multimedia
Multimedia
Relevant Resources

Interviews

Photo: Michael Allerton

Michael Allerton, MS: Michael Allerton attended UC Davis as an undergraduate and then began work as a nighttime orderly at Kaiser Permanente Walnut Creek. Allerton quickly moved up at the hospital, first as a lab technician then as a health educator. As a health educator, and a gay man, Allerton was one of the first employees in Kaiser Permanente to push for a serious education program in the wake of the emerging AIDS crisis of the early 1980s. Throughout much of that decade he developed educational materials and presented talks that encouraged his audiences to approach the AIDS epidemic in a rationale and caring manner. Allerton earned a graduate degree in medical ethics and then moved into the position of HIV Operations Policy Leader. In this interview, Allerton discusses the response of Kaiser Permanente to the AIDS epidemic as well as his career in health education and policy. Approximately 8 hours, 30 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Richard Barnaby

Richard Barnaby: Richard Barnaby began his career with Kaiser Permanente as a clerk but retired 37 years later as President and Chief Operating Officer of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals. This interview covers that entire period of nearly four decades, during which time Barnaby worked both for the health plan as well as a medical group (Southern California Permanente Medical Group); he also worked in several regions, including Northwest, Georgia, and North Carolina. The bulk of the interview looks at Kaiser Permanente in the 1990s in the context of the national managed care crisis and the related internal financial and structural difficulties experienced by the organization. Approximately 4 hours, 45 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Amanda Calhoun

Amanda Calhoun, MD: Amanda Calhoun studied the history of medicine at Harvard University as an undergraduate and then decided to continue her studies of medicine in graduate school. She received her MD and MPH from Emory University. After a residency at UCSF, Calhoun accepted a position as a staff OB/GYN physician at Kaiser Permanente Richmond. In this interview, Dr. Calhoun discusses her interest in women’s health and the challenges and possibilities of practicing culturally-competent care in a diverse urban hospital. Approximately 1 hour, 15 minutes; video interview conducted by Aliza Simons.

Photo: Morris Collen

Morris Collen, MD: Dr. Collen’s history with KP goes back to 1942 when he began as chief of medical service at the first Kaiser hospital in Oakland. A previous interview with Dr. Collen covers his career in broad sweep. This interview is more closely focused on the intellectual underpinnings of the multiphasic health testing program he developed and the research office he founded, which later evolved into the KP Division of Research in Oakland; this interview also touches upon the Garfield’s Total Health Project. Approximately 3 hours, 45 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Bob Crane

Robert Crane, MBA: Robert Crane was born and raised in Pennsylvania and educated at Wooster College. Pursing his long-term goal of working in health care administration, Crane enrolled in the Cornell University MBA program and focused in health care administration. Mr. Crane then held a series of positions in the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare and in the New York State Department of Health prior to joining the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan in 1983 as a vice president. While at Kaiser, Crane worked in government relations, national accounts, quality management, and in the international division. In this interview, Mr. Crane discusses health care public policy from the 1970s through the Clinton Administration, with a focus on the government relations program of Kaiser Permanente. Approximately 5 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Francis J. Crosson

Francis J. Crosson, MD: [NOTE: This transcript is not available online. It will soon be available to researchers at The Bancroft Library and the UCLA Library.] Francis J. Crosson was born in Staten Island, New York, and raised there and in Connecticut. He received both undergraduate and graduate school education at Georgetown University, earning his MD in 1970. While participating in the Berry Plan, Crosson was stationed at the Bethesda Naval Hospital where he gained an interest in pediatric infectious disease. After working in a research position at Johns Hopkins University, Crosson and his spouse, Dr. Sharon Levine, were recruited by The Permanente Medical Group, and they moved to California in 1977. Crosson took on administrative tasks early on and within ten years was named Associate Executive Director the The Permanente Medical Group. In this position he was in a good position to view the continually negotiated relationship between the medical groups and the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals. In the mid-1990s, Crosson played a key role in establishing the National Partnership Agreement and the Permanente Federation, of which he served as the first executive director. Approximately 10 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Cecil Cutting

Cecil Cutting, MD: Dr. Cutting’s engagement with Sidney Garfield’s approach to prepaid group practice medicine dates to 1938 when he was asked to serve as a physician on Kaiser Industries Grand Coulee dam project in Washington state. This very brief interview touches upon Dr. Cutting’s professional relationship with Dr. Garfield; a more complete interview with Dr. Cutting was conducted as part of the KP Founding Generation series. Approximately 52 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Bob Erickson

Bob Erickson, JD: Robert Erickson attended law school first at Hastings College of the Law in San Francisco and then graduated from Harvard Law School. Upon graduation he joined Kaiser Permanente in 1958. He served as the Chief Counsel for Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals for over twenty years, between 1971 and 1993. During that period of time Erickson attended board meetings of the health plan and played a key role in lobbying and public policy work. Although this interview touches upon both politics and public policy, it focuses on the role of the board of directors and how it changed under the leadership of CEO James Vohs and his successor David Lawrence, MD. Approximately 4 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Bob Erickson interview #2: In this follow-up to his first interview, Mr. Erickson discusses Kaiser Permanente’s government relations program from the 1950s when the organization hired its first lobbyist in Sacramento into the 1990s, by which time the organization maintained a permanent presence in Washington DC and work alongside many other large health insurers. The interview details Kaiser’s efforts to influence the legislation that created Medicare, its role in crafting the HMO Act of 1973, and its responses to federal efforts at comprehensive health reform. Approximately 5 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Vincent Felitti

Vincent Felitti, MD: A graduate of Johns Hopkins Medical School, Dr. Felitti joined the Southern California Permanente Medical Group (San Diego) in 1968. This interview focuses on Felitti’s Health Appraisal program which helped determine the medical needs of patients in a preventive health context; the interview further covers Felitti’s more recent research into the impact of childhood abuse on adult health. Approximately 6 hours, 40 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Tracy Flanagan

Tracy Flanagan, MD [Interview sealed until 2028]: Approximately 2 hours; video interview conducted by Aliza Simons and Martin Meeker.

Photo: Gary Friedman

Gary Friedman, MD: A veteran epidemiologist with the Framingham heart study and the US Public Health Service, Dr. Friedman began in 1968 as an epidemiologist in Dr. Collen’s Department of Medical Methods Research (later the Division of Research); he served as director of that division from 1991 through 1998. This interview looks critically at the multiphasic health testing program initiated by Collen; it further explores the development of computerized medical records, research ethics and methodologies, and Garfield’s Total Health Project. Approximately 3 hours, 55 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Richard Froh

Richard Froh, MPH: Richard Froh was born in California’s Sacramento Valley and educated in public schools in the state. He attended pharmacy school at the University of California and then went to Harvard to study for his Master’s of Public Health. Froh worked at a number of positions in the public health sector, including at the US Public Health Service and UCLA’s National Health Law Program. From 1978 through 1981, Froh worked as a professional staff member for the U.S. Senate’s Committee on Labor and Human Resources. In 1981 he took a position in Kaiser Permanente government relations department, eventually becoming Vice President of Government Relations. He retired from that position in 2004. In this interview, Mr. Froh discusses health care public policy from the 1960s through the Clinton Administration, with a focus on the government relations program of Kaiser Permanente. Approximately 5 hours, 30 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Oliver Goldsmith

Oliver Goldsmith, MD: Dr. Goldsmith joined the Southern California Permanente Medical Group (SCPMG) in 1969 after graduating from UCLA Medical School. Although committed to work as a clinical physician, Goldsmith moved into a leadership role in 1973 as a member of the SCPMG board of directors; he eventually became SCPMG Medical Director in 1993 and served in that capacity until 2003. This interview explores KP internal politics and external challenges to the organization since 1970; a fair portion of the interview focuses on Dr. Goldsmith’s management philosophy. Approximately 5 hours, 10 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Merwyn Greenlick

Merwyn 'Mitch' Greenlick, PhD: Dr. Greenlick’s background is in public health. In 1964 he founded the Center for Health Research (CHR) as part of Kaiser Permanente, Northwest Region, and served as director from 1964 until 1995. This interview explores the history of the CHR and, in particular, research conducted under its auspices related to medical care delivery; the interview also touches upon the HMO act, interregional relations, and politics. Approximately 7 hours, 10 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo of Juan Guerra

Juan Guerra, MD: Juan Guerra was born in El Salvador. He attended Pomona College as an undergraduate and then gained admission to the University of Illinois, Chicago, to study medicine. Upon graduation, Guerra took an internship and residency at Kaiser Permanente Oakland. He then worked in private practice as an obstetrician in Texas before being hired by the Permanente Medical Group in 2001. In this interview, Dr. Guerra discusses the challenges and possibilities of practicing culturally-competent care in a diverse urban hospital, with particular attention to language barriers and health disparities. Approximately 1 hour, 15 minutes; audio interview conducted by Aliza Simons.

Photo: Daniel Klein

Daniel Klein, MD: Daniel Klein was born and raised on Long Island, New York. He attended Dartmouth as an undergraduate and then Cornell Medical School. His interest in internal medicine, as well as social justice aspects of health care, took him to the University of New Mexico for a residency in which he worked closely with Native American Indians. He then served in the US Public Health Service in San Francisco, where he encountered the sexual revolution and counterculture as a physician. After a short stint in private practice, in 1983 Dr. Klein joined the Permanente Medical Group at the Hayward hospital where he specialized in infectious disease. Dr. Klein soon became the on-site HIV/AIDS specialist. In this interview, Dr. Klein discusses the treatment of people with HIV/AIDS within Kaiser Permanente, the organizational response to the epidemic, and the transformation of his practice with the emergence of effective antiviral medications in the 1990s. Approximately 2 hours, 30 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Tracy Flanagan

Robert Klein, MD: Starting at KP as a staff specialist in urology in 1975, Dr. Klein switched gears to focus primarily on medical management and administration in the 1980s. Topics covered in this interview include: marketing of medical care (including the “Thrive” campaign), Garfield’s Total Health Project, and the 1990s adult primary care redesign initiative. Approximately 2 hours, 25 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Ron Knox

Ronald Knox: Ronald Knox was raised in California's San Joaquin Valley and educated at UC Berkeley. After graduating, he helped establish a neighborhood health center in East Palo Alto, California. In the 1970s, Knox was hired as a personnel director by the Kaiser Permanente facility in Redwood City, the first person of color to hold this position in Kaiser Permanente. While in that position, he managed labor relations, personnel recruitment, and local affirmative action programs, and became an advocate for equal employment opportunity in the organization. Knox went on to play a key role on the organization's Minority Recruitment and Promotion Taskforce, which led to the establishment of the Office of National Diversity and the National Diversity Council. When Mr. Knox was interviewed in 2009, he was Senior Vice President and Chief Diversity Officer of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals. In this interview, Mr. Knox discusses his advocacy of diversity and equal employment opportunities within Kaiser Permanente, and his leadership role in the development and evolution of culturally competent health care, the creation of minority and women business enterprise programs, creation and nation-wide expansion of linguistic services throughout the organization, and the development of Kaiser Permanente's nationally recognized, largest, and longest running conference on corporate diversity in the country. Approximately 4 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Jim Lane

Jim Lane: Jim Lane worked for the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan for nearly 25 years, during most of which he focused on issues of government relations and public policy. Prior to working with Kaiser, Mr. Lane was a staff member with the California State Legislature, working primarily with the Public Health Committee and on health issues in general. He was hired by Kaiser in 1973 and continued his work in the state capitol as counsel in the government relations department. In 1983, Mr. Lane moved into the policy and planning department, and he ended his career with Kaiser working as a liaison between the health plan and the medical groups in 1997. In this interview, Mr. Lane discusses health policy and legislation, especially as it relates to Kaiser Permanente, but also in relation to the emergence of health maintenance organizations nationwide. Approximately 3 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: David Lawrence

David Lawrence, MD: David Lawrence is a native of the Pacific Northwest, where he was raised and attended high school. He attended Amherst College in Massachusetts as an undergraduate and then medical school at the University of Kentucky, graduating in 1966. At Kentucky, he took advantage of that medical school’s then-unique program in community medicine, which eventually led to assignments in Bolivia and the Dominican Republic with the Peace Corps. Lawrence then advised the Chilean government on public health for two years before returning to the United States where soon earned his MPH from the University of Washington. After serving as Medical Director for the Multnomah County, Oregon, Department of Human Services, Lawrence joined the Northwest Permanente Medical Group in 1981. Moving from the medical group to the health plan side of Kaiser Permanente in 1985, Lawrence served as Regional Manager for the Colorado and then Northern California Regions. He eventually became CEO and Chairman of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals in 1992 until retiring from that position in 2002. This interview explores Lawrence’s career, with a particular focus on how he responded to challenges faced by the organization in the 1990s. Approximately 9 hours, 30 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo unavailable

Carole Lietzke, RN: Carole Lietzke’s early interest in a career in medicine was put on hold due to marriage and the obligations associated with raising a family. She eventually became a registered nurse and then a nurse midwife, working for several years at Kaiser Permanente Hayward. In this interview, Lietzke details the unique elements of work as a nurse midwife in a prepaid, group practice setting as well as the challenges and possibilities of practicing culturally-competent care in a diverse suburban hospital patronized by many recent immigrants and non-English speakers. Approximately 2 hours; audio interview conducted by Aliza Simons.

Photo of Susan Lindheim

Susan Lindheim, MD: Susan Lindheim was educated at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and initially chose to study sociolinguistics. Although she remained interested in the issues of difference and inequality related to that field, she instead attended medical school, getting her MD from the Albert Einstein School of Medicine in New York. After earning an MPH at UC Berkeley, Dr. Lindheim took a residency at Kaiser Permanente Oakland, eventually becoming a staff pediatrician with Kaiser. In this interview, Lindeim discusses her work as a bilingual pediatrician and her advocacy of culturally-competent care within Kaiser Permanente. Approximately 1 hour, 30 minutes; audio interview conducted by Aliza Simons.

Photo: George Matula George Matula, MD: George Matula attended Swarthmore College as an undergraduate and then medical school at Temple University. He engaged in post-graduate work at the University of Illinois, University of Michigan, and Northwestern, and spent a year on the Berry Plan at Camp Pendleton. Matula worked as a staff physician at Kaiser Permanente San Francisco in the 1970s where he was first exposed to the medical dimensions of sexual subcultures. While serving as Interim Chief of Infectious Diseases at UCSF in 1981, Matula encountered some of the earliest cases of AIDS in the United States. In this interview, Dr. Matula discusses the response by Kaiser Permanente to the AIDS epidemic in San Francisco. He also details his participation in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group with the Stanford Medical Center as a Kaiser Permanente physician and the development of treatment regimens beginning with AZT in the late 1980s. Approximately 6 hours, 40 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo: Frank Murray Frank Murray, MD: After working as a physician in a small practice in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, Dr. Murray joined the Southern California Permanente Medical Group in 1971. Murray moved quickly up the ranks of the organization, eventually serving as SCPMG Medical Director from 1982 to 1993. The interview offers a broad overview of the idea of “Permanente medicine” and KP medical management practices and approaches; Murray also touches upon issues relevant to the debates in the 1990s over KP “core values.” Approximately 5 hours, 50 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo: Dave Newhouse

Dave Newhouse, MD: Dave Newhouse was exposed to progressive notions about women’s rights and birth control early in life, which he claims led him to a career in medicine. He attended medical school at Michigan State University, took his residency in the Panama Canal Zone, and then earned his MPH at UC Berkeley. He joined the Permanente Medical Group and practices OB/GYN at Kaiser Permanente facilities in Hayward and Fremont. In this interview, Dr. Newhouse discusses the role of gender in OB/GYN departments with diverse patient populations as well as the overall challenges and possibilities of practicing culturally-competent care. Approximately 1 hour, 45 minutes; video interview conducted by Aliza Simons..

Photo of Naomi Newhouse Naomi Newhouse, RN: Naomi Newhouse was influenced by Second-Wave Feminism to enter into a career in women’s health. After earning at BS in nursing at San Francisco State University, she enrolled in the UCSF program in midwifery. Working as a nurse midwife at Kaiser Permanente Hayward, Newhouse also started to play an active role in the California Nurse Midwife Association and legal and policy issues surrounding her profession. In this interview, Newhouse discusses the challenges and possibilities of practicing culturally-competent care in a diverse hospital patronized by many recent immigrants and non-English speakers. Approximately 1 hour, 45 minutes; audio interview conducted by Aliza Simons
Photo: Dave Pockell Dave Pockell: [sealed until 2021]. Approximately 6 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo: Robert Ridgley Robert Ridgley, JD: Robert Ridgley was educated at Cornell University and then at Harvard Law School. After graduation, he and his family headed out west for Portland, Oregon. He worked for many years in a law firm doing corporate law, including as outside counsel for the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals in the Northwest Region. After becoming CEO of Northwest Natural Gas Company, Ridgley joined the national board of directors for Kaiser in 1987. This interview focuses on the opportunities and challenges presented to Kaiser Permanente, especially in the 1990s, from the perspective of this board member. Approximately 3 hours, 45 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo of Nora Salvador Nora Salvador, MD: Nora Salvador was raised in Oakland, California, where she was a member of Kaiser Permanente. She attended medical school and completed her residency at the University of Illinois, Chicago, where she specialized in OB/GYN. Upon completion of her residency in 2001, Salvador joined the OB/GYN department at Kaiser Permanente Richmond. In this interview, Dr. Salvador discusses the challenges and possibilities of practicing culturally-competent care in a diverse urban hospital, with particular attention to language barriers and health disparities. Approximately 1 hour; audio interview conducted by Aliza Simons.
Photo: Bruce Sams Bruce Sams, MD: Born and raised in Georgia, Dr. Sams came to California in 1956 as a resident at UCSF. While at the university hospital, he first encountered Kaiser Permanente. In 1962 he joined The Permanente Medical Group and soon emerged as a physician leader at the San Francisco Medical Center. He served as director of The Permanente Medical Group—the chief physician in Northern California—between 1976 and 1990. This interview looks broadly at the notion of Kaiser Permanente “core values” and how those values were both challenged and reinforced in the 1970s and 1980s. Approximately 4 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo: Elizabeth Sandel Elizabeth Sandel, MD: Elizabeth “Betsy” Sandel was born and raised in central Pennsylvania and attended Bucknell as an undergraduate. Interested in pursuing a career in community organizing, Sandel enrolled in the Boston University School of Theology and then took a position in campus ministry at the University of Pennsylvania in 1972. While working on women’s issues at the university, Sandel decided to return to school to study medicine, first in the post-baccalaureate pre-med program at Bryn Mawr and then at the Medical College of Pennsylvania where she earned her MD. After completing her residency at Thomas Jefferson University, Sandel began practicing in physical and rehabilitative medicine. She joined the Permanente Medical Group in 1997 as the Chief of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Vallejo. In this interview, Dr. Sandel discusses culturally-competent care with particular attention to people with disabilities. Approximately 7 hours, 45 minutes; interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo: Edgar Schoen Edgar Schoen, MD: Born and educated in New York City, Dr. Schoen joined Kaiser Permanente as a pediatrician in 1954. He served as chief of pediatrics at Kaiser Permanente Medical Center/Oakland between 1966 and 1990. This relatively short interview looks at the concept of core values in the early years of Kaiser Permanente but then focuses on a 1996 editorial published in the New England Journal of Medicine pronouncing the death of non-profit health plans, and Dr. Schoen’s critical response to that editorial. Approximately 1 hour, 45 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo: Tracy Seo Tracy Seo, MD: Tracy Seo first became interested in medicine after witnessing a close relative’s struggle with health problems. Her interest in the provision of culturally-competent care also emerged at this time. She was educated at the University of Chicago and then attended medical school at the Medical College of Ohio; she held an internship at St. Luke’s Medical Center in Chicago and took her residency at the University of Illinois College of Medicine. She was hired by the Permanente Medical Group as an OB/GYN in 2002. In this interview, Dr. Seo discusses the relationship of race and ethnicity to health care delivery. Approximately 45 minutes; video interview conducted by Aliza Simons.
Photo: Bruce Sams Ellamae Simmons, MD: Ellamae Simmons’s remarkable life story begins when she was born in 1918 in Mount Vernon, Ohio, into one of the only two Black families in that town. After graduating from high school, Simmons applied to nursing school at Ohio State, but was rejected because the university claimed it could not accommodate Black nursing students. She then enrolled in Hampton, a historically-Black college, and learned for the first time about African-American history and leaders. After completing her degree in nursing, Simmons attempted for about a decade to gain admission to a medical school, eventually enrolling in Howard University’s medical school. In 1965, Simmons became the first African-American female physician hired by Kaiser Permanente San Francisco, where she worked as an allergist for over two decades. In this interview, Dr. Simmons discusses the long sweep of the history race in the United States with special attention to health care. Approximately 2 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo of David Sobel David Sobel, MD, MPH: Dr. Sobel is a leader in preventive health and health education. This interview focuses on those two related pursuits in the context of his work on behalf of the Permanente Medical Group (northern California); the interview also touches upon culturally competent approaches to care and medical marketing, including the “Thrive” campaign. Approximately 2 hours; interview conducted by Nadime Wilmot.
Photo: Gayle Tang Gayle Tang, RN [In process]: Approximately 6 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo: Dan Wagster Dan Wagster: Daniel Wagster was born in Kelso, Washington, just north of the Columbia River, in 1927. Raised by foster parents, Wagster was a high achiever and was admitted to Yale to study as an undergraduate. A few years after graduating, he gained employment with Kaiser Industries in the field of industrial relations. He was then transferred to the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and Hospitals (KFHP/H) in southern California to work as a health plan manager. Over the next three decades, Wagster held managerial positions in many of the regions served by Kaiser, including northern California, the Northwest, Hawaii, and the Mid-Atlantic. This substantial interview examines issues such as the process by which KFHP/H became a federally qualified health maintenance organization and the relationship between KFHP/H and the Permanente medical groups. Approximately 7 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo: Paul Wallace Paul Wallace, MD: Dr. Wallace was pursuing a largely academic approach to medicine when he accepted a position in hematology and oncology at KP northwest that allowed him to pursue both research and clinical interests; in 1999, Dr. Wallace was brought to Oakland to work in the Care Management Institute, in which he served as director from 2000 to 2005. This interview looks broadly at the development and practice of evidence-based medicine in KP, focusing on the development of clinical practice guidelines, the electronic medical record, and future directions of evidence-based medicine. Approximately 4 hours, 30 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.
Photo: Al Weiland

Al Weiland, MD: Dr. Weiland joined Northwest Permanente Medical Group as an OB/GYN in 1977, but moved into medical management and administration in the 1980s, eventually serving as regional Medical Director from 1993 to 2000; he also served on the founding board of the Permanente Federation. This interview focuses on the emergence of clinical quality evaluation and, in particular, on the development of the electronic medical record in the northwest region that became the basis for the system-wide KP HealthConnect. Approximately 5 hours, 50 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Al Weiland interview #2: This interview follows up on the substantial interview conducted with Dr. Weiland in year 1 of this project about the development of the electronic medical record. This subsequent interview examines the managed care crisis on the 1990s and the turbulence within the Kaiser Permanente organization during the same period. The interview focuses on the relationship between the medical groups and the health plan under the leadership of CEO David Lawrence; it also details the creation of the Permanente Federation and the National Partnership Group and Agreement. Approximately 3 hours, 45 minutes; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.

Photo: Steve Zatkin Steve Zatkin: [sealed until 2020]. Approximately 3 hours; video interview conducted by Martin Meeker.


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