Gobind Khorana's "paired" nucleotides in
single strings of DNA was
the key. The DNA enzyme ligase sealed the molecules
Vittorio Sgaramella discovered that blunt DNA ends that lacked complementarity,
were joined by DNA ligase found in the T4 bacterial
The terminal transferase enzyme was
discovered at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
R.H. Jensen used DNA ligase to clone nicks in rDNA,
but was not successful.
Peter Lobban discovered manipulations
for permanent fusion of DNA fragments. Paul Berg
linked the E. Coli virus, lambda,
which sparked a biohazards
"Palindrome" enzymes were discovered
by Werner Arber and Hamilton Smith.
Historic meeting in Hawaii, where
many scientists discuss the possibility of cloning.
Thoughts on how combining methods
May 1973 paper described results
DNA experiments were conducted by
Dr. Cohen and Annie Chang at Stanford, and by Herbert
Boyer at UCSF. They presented their paper to the
National Academy of Sciences, which was the basis
for the basic cloning patent.
segments were propagated in E. Coli.
Science isn't done in a vacuum.
If Cohen and Boyer hadn't discovered rDNA, someone
else would have.
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