Foundations of Anthropology at the University of California   Seal of The University of California
Guide to the Collections of the Department of Anthropology at the Affiliated Colleges, San Francisco

University of California

The Department of Anthropology of the University of California was established in 1901 to co-operate and organize into a unit which should be an integral part of the University, several archaeological and ethnological expeditions maintained on behalf of the University by Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst. The purpose of the Department is research, the formation of collections, and the diffusion of knowledge by instruction and publication. Mrs. Hearst has continued her support on a most liberal scale, so that the Department has been able, within the few years of its existence, to take rank among the foremost museums and institutions of anthropological research in the country. Expeditions for research and collecting have been particularly active in Egypt, Greece and Italy, Peru, and California, but additional researches have been carried on in several other regions, especially in North America, and collections have been formed from all parts of the world which have placed the museum on an unusually broad and cosmopolitan basis.

At the organization of the Department a fireproof storage building was erected for it on the University grounds in Berkeley. By 1903 this had become so congested that it was necessary to remove the collections and the headquarters of the Department to one of the University's buildings at the Affiliated Colleges in San Francisco, where they are now located. In this building at the Affiliated Colleges it has been possible to arrange a large part of the collections for exhibition and for use by those interested in anthropology or any of its branches. The storage building in Berkeley is now also used for exhibition. In the main room is displayed a collection of reproductions of ancient sculpture and architectural art. In the gallery a general synoptical collection, illustrative especially of North American anthropology, has been arranged for use in connection with the anthropological courses of instruction. In this building are located also the Berkeley offices of the Department, a library, and a class room used for the instruction given in anthropology.

F. W. Putnam

Professor of Anthropology and Director
of the Museum of Anthropology.



The Museum of the Department of Anthropology of the University of California is at the present time situated in the westernmost building of the Affiliated Colleges, San Francisco. Originally erected for another department of the University, the building was occupied in 1903 by the Department of Anthropology as the result of lack of facilities to house the growing collections in Berkeley. The present building is excellently adapted to the purposes of a temporary museum, though it has already become too small to accommodate all the collections except in partial storage. Lack of cases as yet forbids the general opening of the Museum to the public, but so far as possible the collections have been arranged for display and are available to students and to those specially interested. The present condition of the Museum, both as regards the building and the installation, must be considered as a temporary one, pending the desired erection of a permanent building equipped so as to fittingly accommodate and preserve the collections.


The general arrangement of the building is such that the first floor and basement are given over to offices, work rooms, and storage, and the two upper floors to installation of collections. Of these two exhibition floors the third or uppermost contains the collections from North America; the second or lower, the collections from other regions.


For special reasons, such as unusual size or weight, a few collections have been placed on the lower floors. A room in the basement contains a collection of Etruscan sculptured stone sarcophagi, a recently discovered statue of the Roman empress Faustina, and other heavy pieces. Along the main entrance on the first floor are arranged a number of Greek and Roman marble sculptures. In the same entrance is Verestchagin's fatuous painting, "The Blowing from the Guns." On the walls along the stairs from the first floor to the second is hung a collection of Renaissance wrought-iron work from Germany. A special room on the first floor is given over to collections in physical anthropology



The second floor contains six rooms, in all of which collections are installed. On the landing of this floor are arranged models of Pueblo villages and ruins in the Southwest. On the walls hang Renaissance and more recent paintings. The rooms on this floor, going from left to right, contain collections respectively from the Philippine Islands, from Asia, from ancient Greece and Italy, from Peru, from Egypt, and from the Islands of the Pacific Ocean.


The Philippine room, number 11, contains collections both from Luzon and from the Moros of the southern part of the archipelago, these two series being arranged on different sides of the room. A special feature is a large collection of hats from all parts of the islands.


The adjoining room to the right, number 12, contains collections from Asia, such as Chinese costumes and flags, Japanese ceremonial and art objects, including a figure of a Thunder God, weapons and models from India, and fur garments from eastern Siberia.


The large adjoining room to the right, number 13, contains collections from ancient Greece and Italy and other countries on the Mediterranean Sea. These collections were formed chiefly through Dr. Alfred Emerson. The specimens are arranged on shelves along the walls and on tables in the middle of the room.

Along the wall to the right of the door as one enters, is displayed a large Etruscan collection. This includes the contents of seventeen tombs grouped separately, as well as other pottery, bronzes, and terra-cotta figures. All of these specimens antedate the birth of Christ.

Along the three other sides of the room are arranged about one hundred marble sculptures and fragments, mainly found in Italy in recent years, and illustrating both early and late periods of Greek and Roman art. Of special interest is a series of portrait heads attributed to characters famous in Roman history. Between the shelves


bearing these marbles are arranged special facsimile reproductions of several larger objects of ancient art.

Rising in tiers from the middle of the floor are six tables. The arrangement of these, proceeding downward and from left to right, is chronological. The two uppermost tables contain a collection of pottery and sculptures from Cyprus, in part probably dating to 1500 B. C., and a collection of glass and bronzes from Syria. On the two middle tables are Greek vases and bronzes, arranged from left to right in general chronological order from the Corinthian and black-figured to the red-figured period. Of the two lowest tables the first one contains vases, bronzes, and terra-cottas of late Greek and Roman periods. On the farther table, the lowest on the right, are arranged facsimile reproductions.


Adjoining the Greek and Roman room on the right, and of equal size, is the Peruvian hall, number 14. On account of lack of space and cases only the smaller part of the Peruvian collections belonging to the Department is as yet displayed. All of these collections were secured by excavations made by Dr. M. Uhle. They are divided into two parts, respectively from Northern and from Southern Peru.

The specimens from Northern Peru are principally from the vicinity of Trujillo and are arranged on the shelves farthest from the door and in an adjacent table case. The painted and modeled pottery is of particular interest.

The collections from Southern Peru are mainly from the vicinities of Chincha and Ica, and occupy the shelves to the left of the door and three adjacent cases. The series from Chincha are on the shelves immediately adjoining the entrance and in a wall case to the right. The collections from Ica occupy the remaining shelves and cases on the left side of the room and contain many noteworthy and valuable pieces. Some specimens of particular interest are installed in the table case nearest the door. From the mummies in the possession of the Department, three, two of them bundle burials and one a pot burial, have been selected for exhibition, while several large vessels illustrate the method of pot burial.

Almost all the Peruvian collections were obtained from graves. As a Peruvian chronology has never been established, their age cannot be determined, but undoubtedly runs back many centuries from the Spanish Conquest, probably in some cases to a thousand years B. C.



The adjoining room to the right, number 15, contains a special collection from Egypt, distinct from the much more extensive collections formed by the systematic excavations of the Hearst Egyptian Expedition in charge of Dr. George A. Reisner, which have not yet been arranged for permanent exhibition.


The adjoining room to the right, number 16, the last on this floor, contains the collections from the Islands of the Pacific Ocean. On shelves on one side of the room are ethnological collections from New Guinea, oil the other side of the room from the various island groups of Micronesia, Polynesia, and Melanesia. On the walls are hung spears, bows, paddles, and clubs.


On the lauding of the third floor is hung the Sharp collection of oil portrait paintings of North American Indians, representing men, women, and children from the Sioux, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Crow, Pueblo, and other tribes.

The collections on this floor, which are all from North America, are arranged in three rooms of unequal size. Room 18, the largest, contains collections from California. Room 22 contains a special collection from Central America. Room 17 contains the collections from North America other than from these two regions.


The North American Indian room, number 17, the first to the left on this floor, contains collections from Alaska and the North Pacific Coast, the Southwest, and the Plains and Mississippi Valley. Following the shelves from left to right, there is first a small collection from the tribes of the Southwest, including the Navaho, Apache, Pueblo. and Pima, all of whom make baskets and most of whom weave cloth. Adjoining are collections from the Plains Indians, the tribes inhabiting the region between the Mississippi river and the Rocky mountains. These Indians make neither basketry nor cloth and usually no pottery, but employ many objects of skin, feathers, and beadwork. The tribes specially represented are the Omaha and Ponka, Kiowa, Sioux, and Blackfeet. Adjoining is a small collection from the Selishan tribes of Puget Sound, who make


basketry but no pottery. On shelves to the right are collections front the Tlinkit Indians of Southeastern Alaska, notable for their woodcarving, and, adjoining these, from the Athabascan tribes of the interior of Alaska. To the right, on an alcove shelving extending into the middle of the room, is a selected collection from the Eskimo of the coast of Alaska, notable for their work in ivory and skins. These collections from Alaska are chiefly the gift of the Alaska Commercial Company. On account of lack of space they have been exhibited only in part. A second alcove shelving contains pottery of the modern Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona. On the wall shelves to the right is a series of prehistoric specimens from Cliff Dwellings and ruins of southern Colorado and Utah, illustrating the former civilization of the southwestern peoples allied to the Pueblos. At the right end of these wall shelves, back at the door at the completion of the circuit of the room, is an archaeological collection acquired through a joint expedition with Harvard University to an aboriginal saltmaking site in Missouri. The walls of file room are hung with clothing and large specimens from the Plains Indians.


The adjoining room on the right, number 18, the California hall, is the largest in the building. Except for two skin tents from the Plains Indians, which are too large to be displayed in their proper place, this hall contains only specimens relating to California. The arrangement of the room is based on the distinction existing between the three principal types of native culture or civilization in the State, the Northwestern, Central, and Southern. The north or left side of the room, as one enters, illustrates the Northwestern culture; the south or right side, the Central culture; the eastern end of the room, opposite the door, the Southern culture.

The Northwestern region, centering about Humboldt county, is best represented by collections from the Yurok, Karok, and Hupa of the lower Klamath and Trinity rivers, from whom a very large and important collection has been obtained. The arts and industries, as well as the dress and ceremonies, of these Indians are fully illustrated. A special section is given over to a display of the basketry, with particular reference to methods of technique and designs. On the shelves at the farther end of this side of the room are collections from other tribes of the Northwestern region, the Tolowa, Lassik, Shasta and Wintun.


On the opposite or South side of the hall are collections from the living and extinct Indians of Central California, the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys and adjacent mountain and coast regions being included under this term. This Central area being much larger than the Northwestern one, there is somewhat less uniformity among the various tribes inhabiting it. Beginning at the left or farther end of the room, there are collections from the Wailaki and Yuki of Mendocino county, and the Wappo of Sonoma county. Following these is a more extensive collection from the Pomo Indians of Mendocino, Sonoma, and Lake counties. Notable in this series are the baskets. Still farther to tile right, Indians of the Maidu, Achomawi. Miwok or Moquelumnan, and Yokuts linguistic families are represented, embracing the tribes from Pit river to Kern river. Adjoining these are several collections obtained in archaeological explorations, one from the vicinity of Stockton, another attributed to the auriferous gravels, and a third from the coast region between Monterey and Santa Barbara.

At the eastern end of the room, opposite the entrance, are collections from various parts of Southern California. On the left is part of a large collection from the Santa Barbara Islands, mainly from Santa Rosa, the former inhabitants of which are entirely extinct. To the right are baskets and implements from various tribes of the great Shoshonean family in Southern California. A special collection from the Mohave illustrates the life of the Indians of the Colorado river region.


A small room on this floor, number 22, contains the Anton Roman Memorial collection of ancient pottery from Chiriqui in the State of Panama. This collection is the gift of Mr. Cornelius E. Rumsey. Other rooms on this floor are used for storage.


Owing to lack of space, numerous collections have not yet been put on exhibition. Among these are the large and extremely valuable collections made by the Hearst Egyptian Expedition in charge of Dr. Reisner; a great part of the collections obtained by the Archaeological Expedition to Peru in charge of Dr. Uhle; other collections from South America and Mexico; and considerable parts of the collections from ancient Greece and Rome, California, Alaska, and elsewhere.






FREDERIC WARD PUTNAM, Sc. D., Professor of Anthropology and Director of the Museum of Anthropology.
JOHN CAMPBELL MERRIAM, Ph. D., Assistant Professor of Palaeontology and Historical Geology, and Field Director of Geological Explorations.
GEORGE A. REISNER, Ph. D., Hearst Lecturer in Egyptology and Field Director of Explorations in Egypt.
MAX UHLE, Ph. D., Hearst Lecturer in Peruvian Archaeology and Field Director of Explorations in South America.
ZELIA NUTTALL, Field Director of the Crocker-Reid Researches in Mexico.
ALFRED L. KROEBER, Ph. D., Instructor in Anthropology and Secretary of the Department.
PLINY EARLE GODDARD, PH. D., Instructor in Anthropology and Librarian of the Department.
J. M. ROBERTSON, Museum Assistant.
R. E. SCOTT, Museum Assistant.
ETHEL G. FIELD, Stenographer.



5. General Introduction to Anthropology (omitted 1905-6) Dr. Kroeber 4. Geological History of Man Dr. Merriam
9. North American Archaeology (omitted 1905-6) Dr. Kroeber
1A. North American Ethnology (in alternate years with 1B) Dr. Kroeber
1B. North American Ethnology (in alternate years with 1A) Dr. Kroeber
2. Athapascans of the Pacific Coast Dr. Goddard
13. Religious Practices and Beliefs of Non-literary Peoples Dr. Goddard
10. The History of Art in Greece (1903-4) Dr. Emerson
11. Seminary Exercises in Classical Archaeology (1903-4) Dr. Emerson
6A. Experimental Phonetics (in alternate years with 6B) Dr. Goddard
6B. Experimental Phonetics (in alternate years with 6A) Dr. Goddard
3A. North American Languages (in alternate years with 3B) Dr. Kroeber
3B. North American Languages (in alternate years with 3A) Dr. Kroeber
12. The Determination of Linguistic Relationship Dr. Kroeber
8. Advanced Work in Primitive Languages Dr. Kroeber
7. Advanced Work in Ethnology Dr. Kroeber


The University of California, through its Department of Anthropology, is engaged in an Ethnological and Archaeological Survey of the State. A large amount of material, illustrative of Indian life and culture in past and present times, has been obtained and will form an important part of the anthropological collections of the University.

Systematic explorations are being made of gravel deposits, of caves, and of shell-heaps, in order to ascertain the time when man first occupied this region and his stage of development. The languages of


the existing Indians are being studied by experts of the Department; the customs and mythology of the different tribes are being carefully recorded; and collections illustrating their arts are being formed for the Museum. A study of the physical characters of the various groups of Indians, combined with that of the skeletons found during the archaeological explorations, is being made in order to determine the physical relations of the Indians of California with those of other regions.

The officers of the Department make a special appeal to persons in all parts of the State and adjacent regions for aid in this survey. Hundreds of Indian objects are found annually, which if carefully labeled as to where and how found, and sent to the University, would, when brought together for comparative study, aid in the settlement of many important questions. The distribution of a particular kind of stone implement, or of an ancient form of basket, and of many other objects of Indian manufacture (even the peculiar stone of which an implement is made is of great importance), will aid in determining the distribution of a tribe or group of which other records may be lost or so uncertain that just such confirmatory evidence to establish a particular point is required.

Information relating to the location of caves, shell-heaps, old burial places, ancient village sites, rock carvings, and scattered survivors of nearly extinct tribes, is earnestly solicited, that such may be investigated by the Department and may be correctly recorded on its ethnological and archaeological maps of the State. Photographs of such localities, of rare specimens, and especially of Indians themselves, if contributed to the Department's collections, will be of great value.

The University is by this survey carrying on a research of great importance in obtaining a knowledge of the first peopling of the Pacific Coast, the early migrations, and the relationships of the recent and present Indians, a research that is not only required by anthropologists, but is of direct interest to the people of the State. This work has been well begun, but assistance is needed for its rapid progress. This assistance it is hoped will be given to aid the University of the State in an undertaking of such general importance.

Correspondence leading to aid in this survey is solicited. Correspondence and packages should be addressed to the Secretary of the Department, Dr. A. L. Kroeber, at the Affiliated Colleges, San Francisco.



Series of American Archaeology and Ethnology. 8 vo.

Vol. I.
No. 1. Life and Culture of the Hupa. By P. E. Goddard. 1903.
No. 2. Hupa Texts. By P. E. Goddard. 1904.

Vol. II. No. 1. The Exploration of the Potter Creek Cave. By W. J. Sinclair. 1904.
No. 2. The Languages of the Coast of California South of San Francisco. By A. L. Kroeber. 1904.
No. 3. Types of Indian Culture in California. By A. L. Kroeber. 1904.
No. 4. Basket Designs of the Indians of Northwestern California. By A. L. Kroeber. 1905.
No. 5. The Yokuts Language of South Central California. By A. L. Kroeber. In press.

Vol. III. The Morphology of the Hupa Language. By P.E. Goddard. 1905.

Vol. IV. No. 1. Contribution to the Physical Anthropology of California. By A. Hrdlicka. In press.
No. 2. Shoshonean Dialects of California. By A. L. Kroeber. In press.
No. 3. The Earliest Historical Communications between Alexico and Japan. By Zelia Nuttall. In press.
No. 4. Indian Myths from South Central California. By A. 1,. Kroeber. In press.
No. 5. Geography of the Pomo Indians. By S. A. Barrett. In preparation.

Series of Graeco-Roman Archaeology. 8 vo.

Vol. I. The Tebtunis Papyri, Part 1. By B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt. and J. G. Smyly. 1903.

Vol. III. The Tebtunis Papyri, Part 2. In preparation.

Vol. III. The Tebtunis Papyri, Part 3. In preparation.



Series of Egyptian Archaeology. Large 8 vo.

Vol. I. The Hearst Medical Papyrus. By G. A. Reisner. In press.

Vol. II. The Predynastic Cemetery at Naga-ed-Der. The Archaeological Material. By A. M. Lythgoe. In preparation.

Vol. III. The Predynastic Cemetery at Naga-ed-Der. The Anatomical Material. By Elliott Smith. In preparation.

Vol. IV. The Early Dynastic Cemeteries at Naga-ed-Der. By G. A. Reisner. In press.

Vol. V. The Cemetery of the Second and Third Dynasty at Naga-ed-Der. By A. C. Mace. In press.

Vol. VI. The Cemetery of the Third and Fourth Dynasties at Naga-ed-Der. By G. A. Reisner. In preparation.

Vol. VII. The Coptic Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Der. By A. C. Mace. In preparation.

Memoirs in Quarto.

Vol. I. Explorations in Peru. By M. Uhle. In preparation.

Special Publications.

The Book of the Life of the Ancient Mexicans. By Zelia Nuttall.
Part 1. 1903.
Part 2. In press.

The Department of Anthropology, Its History and Plan. 8 vo. 1905.

Communications regarding these publications should be addressed to the University Press, Berkeley.


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